GENERICO.ruWorldThe historian told how Operation Trust saved Russia a hundred years ago

The historian told how Operation Trust saved Russia a hundred years ago


MOSCOW, Dec 5 Operation “Trust”, launched at the end of 1921 by young Soviet special services, not only protected Russia from a military invasion from the West, which could be fatal for the country, but also had a great influence on the further development of counterintelligence, the president of the Society for the Study of History told RIA Novosti Russian special services, Doctor of Historical Sciences, retired FSB Lieutenant General Alexander Zdanovich. He gave some details of that operation, little known to the general reader – in particular, who was the real author of the idea that formed the basis of the Trust, and how exactly the Soviet Chekists drove for the nose of foreign intelligence officers. The ex-FSB general told how the West hurried to rejoice at the destruction of the KGB threats from different sides According to Zdanovich, in order to assess the entire plan and threats from outside and from within. “After the White Army left Crimea after the end of the active phase of the Civil War, Russian military emigration gathered abroad, very significant in number and aggressively inclined,” Zdanovich noted. Unlike other categories of migrants, the bulk of officers who left Russia had nothing to lose, he added. “They had neither savings nor diamonds. to the radicalization of emigre circles. ”It is no accident that the Russian General Military Union of General Wrang was formed in 1924-1925 spruce “, – he noted. In addition, after the Civil War in the Far East, the Far Eastern republic, the so-called” pink power “, was formed. “And from there, too, a threat arose associated with the interventionists,” Zdanovich added. In Russia itself that year, the Antonov uprising in the Tambov region and the Kronstadt uprising, the Karelian uprising took place, and other politically dangerous phenomena took place. In addition, in 1921, after the Polish-Soviet war, Moscow and Warsaw signed the Riga Peace Treaty, according to which Soviet Russia gave Poland the territories of Western Ukraine and Belarus. As a result, a “cordon sanitaire” was formed from sea to sea, and connected the Baltic countries, Poland and Romania. “I'm not talking about the fact that the economy of Soviet Russia was destroyed. At the 10th congress of the party announced the transition to a new economic policy, NEP, “- Zdanovich added. Finally, the Red Army was far from being in the best condition.” that in the Red Army there were many former tsarist officers who were forced to serve in it in order to feed their families, “said the agency's source. The FSB released the details of the first plan of Japan's military strike against the USSR Fiction as reality “Taking all this into account, the Soviet government feared that either an attempt at external intervention would be repeated, as it had happened in the Civil War before, or there would be a general crusade against Soviet Russia. These threats became the main task for the Cheka. Therefore, the Chekists began to carry out such operations as “Trust”, – said Zdanovich. By that time, the Cheka employees already had certain groundwork. “An operation had already been carried out in the western regions of Belarus and partly in Ukraine.” Mole “to defeat the anti-Soviet underground. Even then, attempts were made to create a so-called legendary organization, “the historian noted. It was about creating a firm confidence in the enemy in the existence of a (in fact, fictional) powerful, authoritative organization with great potential, hostile to the Soviet regime, and therefore of great interest. from the point of view of assisting the enemies in the implementation of their plans in relation to Soviet Russia. This legend was carried out at the level of the smallest nuances. As a result, the enemy had to get into the nets skillfully placed by Lubyanka. That is, what would happen in the professional language of counterintelligence officers “distraction to an unusable object. “Before the operation” Mole “ended and the famous operation” Syndicate-2 “began, the 16th special department of the Special Department of the Cheka (later – the 6th department of the KRO, the Counterintelligence Department of the GPU) was already developing a less widely known Operation Syndicate-1. organization “Action Center” and Polish intelligence, which partially controlled its activities. For this, underground organizations were legendary in Moscow and some other cities, whose programs were ideologically close to the views of the famous terrorist, Socialist-Revolutionary Boris Savinkov. “And just within the framework of” Syndicate-1 “an idea was born that contributed to the creation of the” underground organization “” Monarchical Association of Central Russia “(MOTsR), and became the basis of the Yaroslavets case. It entered the historical literature under a different name – Operation Trust, which began at the end of 1921,” Zdanovich said. The FSB has revealed the documents about how the Wehrmacht punishers were found in the USSR former Tsarist army general Vladimir Dzhunkovsky. But he had nothing at all to do with the birth of the Trust, “added the historian.” The very idea of ​​the legendary operations was first applied at the turn of the 1920s, and this was done by Nikolai Demidenko – then he was parts of the Special Department of the Caucasian Front. Young Demidenko (and he was born in 1896) successfully used legends to suppress the bandit movement and counter the special services of the Caucasian republics before their Sovietization, “Zdanovich emphasized. A little later, having moved to Moscow, Demidenko became deputy head of the 6th branch of the KRO, which just carried out the operation “Trust.” “Demidenko was a very active and thinking counterintelligence officer. Studying the documents of “Syndicate-1” and “Trust”, I realized that the idea of ​​”Trust” belongs to Demidenko. She, in turn, was picked up by the head of the 6th department of the KRO Sosnovsky – this was the pseudonym of the once exposed former resident of the Polish intelligence service Ignatius Dobrzhynsky, who agreed to work for Soviet Russia, and, surprising as it may seem, was enlisted in its counterintelligence service. These two people, Demidenko and Sosnovsky, actually developed everything, supervised the operational staff and agents, “Zdanovich said. The historian told how the Polish authorities “slept through” the collapse of the country in 1939. Eminent assistants of the special services But if within the framework of “Syndicate-1” there was a confrontation with the emigrant economic circles of a liberal orientation, relying on the Soviet Nepmen and part of the intelligentsia, then during the “Trust” the Chekists opposed those, who wanted to use the military circles in Russia for their own purposes. The backbone of the KRO agents involved in the Trust was not at all the scum of society who agreed to help counterintelligence for the sake of food rations, Zdanovich noted. intimidation of agents. No, it was about the fact that servicemen, representatives of the nobility, very educated personalities, not the last in society and the army, decided to help the Chekists to preserve the Russian state, “the historian said. with monarchical and military circles – both retired officers and generals, and with those who at that time served lived in the ranks of the Red Army. The political part of the ICRC was “headed” by Alexander Yakushev – “an authoritative representative of the monarchist underground”, a high-ranking employee of the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade, in the past a valid state councilor. The success of the Trust was in many ways possible thanks to Yakushev's diplomatic talents, who were responsible for most of the negotiations with the leaders of the emigration. And the military “leader” of the ICRC was a Pole by nationality, a former tsarist general, professor of the Military Academy of the Red Army Andrei Zayonchkovsky. The implementation of the Trust was a matter not only of the Counterintelligence Department, but also of the Foreign Department of the Cheka-GPU-OGPU (foreign intelligence), as well as of the army structures. FSB: Japan in 1945 was preparing for a bacteriological war against the USSR Artistic “misconception” “The most important result of Operation Trust, which lasted more than five years, I do not even think that the Soviet counterintelligence was able to penetrate the monarchist émigré circles and influence them, but the fact that it was able to advance the Western intelligence services and politicians disinformation that the Red Army had become so strong that it could, as they say, give anyone who attempts to intervene in the teeth. was in a state of decline, “Zdanovich said. According to him, from the point of view of misinforming the enemy, the work against the Polish intelligence, under whose control the main center of communication between the ICRC and the emigrant monarchist organizations, established in Warsaw, was a success.” The Polish line was very serious in business. “Trust.” And it is quite possible that this is precisely why ethnic groups were chosen as the military leader of the ICRC. Pole Zayonchkovsky, “Zdanovich noted. The work on the preparation of” secret “disinformation materials was very painstaking. Moreover, they were drawn up not by the Chekists, but by the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army, and were reported to the People's Commissar for Military Affairs – first to Leon Trotsky, and then to Mikhail Frunze, who replaced him in this post. Army. And here the Chekists were significantly helped by the factor of large-scale reform of the Red Army – thanks to him it was possible to transfer to the Poles real secret documents, which in practice became outdated after a very short time, “Zdanovich said. in the end, their intelligence demanded no less than a mobilization plan of the Red Army. This is the most important document underlying the actions of the armed forces of the state in case of the outbreak of war “, – explained the historian. “The Polish intelligence service, having received this document, appreciated it very highly, Zdanovich noted. revealed and intercepted enemy agents, and the creation of stable channels for the advancement of strategic misinformation about the Red Army to its leading centers. = “/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/d1cca7663ab fa2b5ffe53e8187f8c0de.jpg “/>The historian spoke about the US plan to start a “color revolution” in Soviet Russia in the “Trust” it was, as they say, a “by-product.” year in absentia outlawed Reilly and sentenced to death for participation in subversive and terrorist activities on the territory of the RSFSR (in particular, in the “conspiracy of ambassadors”), and when certain operational conditions developed, the Chekists took the opportunity to get the Briton, he added. In addition, I read the testimony he gave in the Counterintelligence Department. ”Reilly bluffed and just told lies about British intelligence, in which he had no longer worked by that time, “Zdanovich noted.” I even specially checked the book, which at one time was published by the British for the 100th anniversary of their intelligence MI6. So, neither in terms of people, nor in operations, anything from Reilly's story coincides with the real story. That is, he “twisted the brains” of our counterintelligence officers. But they understood this, because they did not take any further serious actions, “the agency's interlocutor explained. Zdanovich also denied the thesis that the Trest case was a major provocation of the Bolsheviks directed against the leaders of the White movement.” This is not so. After all, what is a provocation? In fact, these are actions that force a particular person to commit an act that he did not even have in his head. But the leaders of the White movement and without any “Trust” had the intention to go to armed intervention and terror in order to achieve their goals. Therefore, “Trust” was by no means a provocation, but an operational game. I will say moreover – “Trust” can be considered a truly humane action that prevented another mass bloodshed in Russia, “Zdanovich said. The FSB told how the Japanese in 1945 killed the Soviet prisoners of “Hogoin” Victories in the confrontation of minds a remarkable fact: the Soviet special services, which by the beginning of the Trust were not yet four years old, already possessed such groundwork and confidence in their abilities that they decided to start a new major operation, challenging the seasoned foreign intelligence services. carried out, which greatly influenced the further development of the operational art of Soviet counterintelligence, “Zdanovich emphasized. Operation Dreamers, carried out in the 1930s against Japanese intelligence, entered the history of the Soviet special services. In the early 1930s, the main military threat to the USSR came from Japan. On the territory of the Japanese-occupied territory of Manchuria, the puppet state of Manchukuo was created, which became a springboard for the preparation of Tokyo for an attack on the Soviet Union. But in the Far East direction, the Red Army was not yet ready to successfully repel a possible aggression. Therefore, in order to sow in the Japanese the illusion of a high combat capability of the Soviet troops, in 1932 the OGPU began and for several years conducted Operation Dreamers in the Far East (meaning the forces in the USSR and abroad who dreamed of restoring the former socio-economic system in Russia) … Chekists legendary plans to create an underground subversive anti-Soviet organization, allegedly preparing to operate in Transbaikalia. During the operation, the OGPU succeeded in promoting strategic disinformation to the Harbin military mission, the largest Japanese military intelligence agency working in the Soviet Union. Thanks to this, the Japanese developed an exaggerated opinion, necessary for the Soviet side, about the strength and capabilities of the Red Army. As a result, the Kwantung Army did not attack the USSR, and during this time it was possible to quickly form a combat-ready grouping of Soviet troops in the Far East. “Unfortunately, many Chekists who stood at the origins of the legendary operations died during the years of the Great Terror.” Artur Artuzov and Ignatiy Sosnovsky were shot. Nikolai Demidenko died a natural death in 1934, but, very likely, he would not have escaped a similar fate, “Zdanovich noted. The FSB published documents about Hitler's punitive forces among the Russian emigration. “The most striking example was the three-stage operation of the Soviet special services Monastery-Couriers-Berezino,” Zdanovich said. a grandiose plan arose to penetrate the German military intelligence agencies – the Abwehr. By analogy with Operation Trust, at the end of 1941, it was decided to substitute the Abwehrkommando 103 (the intelligence agency of the German Army Group Center, which had the call sign Saturn), which did not exist in reality, an anti-Soviet church-monarchist organization called “Throne.” The “ambassador” of the “Throne”, heading for “Saturn”, was the agent of the Soviet state security agencies Alexander Demyanov. Discovered misinformation materials of a strategic nature, which came to the Abwehr from Moscow through Demyanov, played a very large role in disguising the preparation of the Red Army for the decisive battles at Stalingrad and on the Kursk Bulge, which turned the tide of the war in favor of the Soviet Union. “Couriers”, within the framework of which the arrests of German agents who arrived in Moscow as scouts and couriers were carried out. Then, at the end of the summer of 1944, the “Berezino” operation received a logical branch from the “Monastyr”. Her daring plan was to legends to German intelligence about the alleged presence of a large German military unit hiding in the forests of Belarus and trying to establish contact with the command of the Wehrmacht. As a result, the Soviet special services managed to divert the attention of the Nazis to this false goal and shackle their forces. “The practice of legend turned out to be very effective after the war, when the Soviet special services used it in the fight against the Bandera underground in Ukraine and the Baltic nationalists, behind whom were Western intelligence services. “, – noted Zdanovich. “And the experience of Operation Trust was actively studied both in the educational institutions of our security agencies and abroad. And rightfully so – after all, without exaggeration, one of the brightest pages in the history of world intelligence services,” the historian added. The historian spoke about Vlasov's connection with the punishers who committed genocide during the war

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