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Laser vision correction – about the operation, contraindications, consequences

Contents

  • What is laser vision correction
  • Types and methods of correction
  • PRK
  • LASIK
  • Femto LASIK
  • Super LASIK or Custom Vue
  • Epi LASIK
  • LASEK
  • Presby LASIK
  • SMILE (ReLEx SMILE, SMILE)
  • Indications
  • Contraindications to laser vision correction
  • How the operation is performed
  • Consequences and rehabilitation
  • How long does the cornea of ​​the eye take to heal
  • Possible complications
  • What not to do after surgery
  • What glasses are needed after laser correction
  • When vision is fully restored
  • How vision changes after laser correction
  • Pros and cons
  • How much does laser vision correction cost
  • Can it be done for free under compulsory medical insurance and voluntary medical insurance

MOSCOW, February 19Laser vision correction allows you to get rid of myopia, farsightedness or astigmatism. What correction methods exist, how the operation works, indications and contraindications for the procedure, expert reviews, as well as how much it costs and whether it can be done for free – in the material .

What is laser vision correction

Laser vision correction is a type of surgery aimed at restoring visual function in patients with pathology. A person who has undergone such a procedure begins to see better due to a change in the shape of the cornea – one of the natural lenses of the human eye.

Laser vision correction is considered one of the safest and most effective methods of treating visual pathologies and has helped to give up glasses and contact lenses are already available to millions of people.

Types and methods of correction

Laser vision correction techniques are being improved thanks to the capabilities of new generation equipment to make it possible to choose the optimal option for the procedure, taking into account all the characteristics of the visual system of a particular patient.

Methods of laser vision correction:

  • PRK – photorefractive keratectomy;
  • LASIK – laser keratomileusis, on the basis of which femtolaser vision correction was invented ( Femto-LASIK, Femto-LASIK), personalized support for laser vision correction (Custom Vue, Super-LASIK, Super-LASIK), as well as Presby LASIK;
  • Epi LASIK – superficial laser keratomileusis;
  • LASEK – laser epithelial keratomileusis;
  • SMILE (SMILE) – femtosecond laser correction;

PRK

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a vision correction method where a laser beam acts directly on the outer surface of the cornea. With myopia (myopia) its center becomes flatter, in the case of hypermetropia (farsightedness) – more convex, with astigmatism (absence of a focal point) – even and regular. During the operation, the light refractive ability of the cornea changes, resulting in improved vision.

PRK is one of the earliest methods of laser vision treatment. Despite the fact that the operation is quite aggressive, doctors cannot completely abandon it. The fact is that in some cases only this procedure is preferable. For example, PRK is used when the patient has a thin cornea.
The healing process of corneal tissue after such a procedure is quite painful. In addition, clouding of the cornea is likely after surgery.

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< h3 id="1598226266-4">LASIK

Laser keratomileusis, also known as LASIK or LASIK, is a vision correction method that is currently considered the most popular all over the world. First of all, during the operation, the inner layers of the cornea are exposed: a surgical instrument – a mechanical microkeratome – separates the surface layer of the cornea and bends the resulting “valve”. The excimer laser then begins to affect the inner layers of the cornea, changing its shape. At the end of the procedure, the corneal flap is placed in place and reliably self-sealed, taking the desired curvature.

Unpleasant sensations during the recovery period after LASIK are minimal.

Femto LASIK ( Femto LASIK

Femtolaser-assisted vision correction, also known as Femto-LASIK, Femto-LASIK is a method that differs from standard LASIK only in that the corneal flap using this technology is cut using a femtosecond laser beam, rather than a mechanical microkeratome. That is why this procedure is often called “All Laser LASIK”.

Super LASIK or Custom Vue

Personalized support for laser vision correction (Custom Vue, Super-LASIK, Super-LASIK) is the correction of the shape of the cornea based on data obtained using preliminary aberrometric analysis. During this process, all distortions present in the human optical system are taken into account, and the degree of their influence on the quality of vision is automatically determined. Based on the results of the analysis, a shape of the cornea is modeled that maximally compensates for all existing distortions. Based on this data, specialists perform LASIK.

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Epi LASIK

Superficial laser keratomileusis Epi LASIK is a technique that combines the advantages of PRK and LASIK, resulting in correction vision even with insufficient corneal thickness. Instead of a microkeratome, which is used to separate the surface layer of the cornea, an epiceratome is used. It peels away rather than cuts the epithelium.

LASEK

Laser epithelial keratomileusis LASEK (LASEK) is a technique that is also a modification of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). During the procedure, using a special solution, the epithelium is separated and lifted, acting as a corneal flap.

This method is used only for medical reasons – when the thickness of the cornea is too small or certain features of the shape of this natural lens of the optical system of the eye. There is also a possibility of corneal clouding after surgery.

Presby LASIK

Presby LASIK is a multifocal corneal resurfacing technique using a laser beam. It is used to treat presbyopia (senile farsightedness), when the patient has difficulty seeing small objects in the close distance from the eyes. And if the disease develops against the background of myopia, then the person is forced to use two pairs of glasses.
During Presby LASIK surgery, the cornea is shaped into the same shape as multifocal lenses. This provides the patient with full vision at close and far distances.

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SMILE (ReLEx SMILE, SMILE)

ReLEx SMILE (SMILE) is femtosecond laser vision correction by removing the lenticule (a fragment of corneal tissue) through a small incision. The shell is given the desired shape without forming a valve and removing it.

Indications

Laser correction is done for the following pathologies:

  • myopia – that is, myopia;
  • hyperopia – farsightedness;
  • astigmatism – impaired image focusing;
  • presbyopia (senile farsightedness).

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It is recommended to undergo surgery for those who do not tolerate vision correction with contact lenses and glasses, people with severe astigmatism or a large difference in the amount of myopia or farsightedness between the eyes. Often, refractive errors are eliminated in order to fully perform professional duties, such as firefighters, police officers, military personnel, as well as those who work with small parts and hazardous substances.

Ekaterina VoronkovaOphthalmic Surgeon

Contraindications to laser vision correction

Contraindications are divided into two groups: relative and absolute. The first are temporary obstacles that can be eliminated:

  • age up to 18 years;
  • inflammatory processes in the organs of vision;
  • diseases due to which immunity is reduced;
  • dystrophic changes in the retina;
  • dystrophic changes in the retina; li>
  • pregnancy and lactation.

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Laser vision correction is also not recommended during the period of preparation for pregnancy – 6 months before the planned conception. In addition, it is worth delaying the operation after childbirth, and not carrying out correction for six months after the birth of the child.

Ekaterina VoronkovaOphthalmic surgeon

During pregnancy, growth hormone, or somatotropic hormone, is produced. It acts not only on the fetus, but also on all structures of the maternal tissue, including the eyeball, which can provoke vision impairment, noted ophthalmologist Maria Trubilina. There have been cases when, after giving birth, girls who were operated on due to stable myopia again encountered problems.

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— In order for the alignment (focus) to be final, it is important that eye growth is complete at the time of surgery. Therefore, vision correction using the LASIK method (excimer laser correction) is done after 18-20 years, explains ophthalmologist Elena Egorova.

Absolute contraindications are:

  • diabetes mellitus in an advanced stage;
  • rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • HIV;
  • oncology;
  • deviations of a mental and neurological nature;
  • optic nerve atrophy, cataracts, glaucoma (however, at some stages diseases – allowed);
  • keratoconus is a disease in which the cornea of ​​the eye protrudes into a cone and becomes thinner.

Eczema and psoriasis are also contraindications, but the gentle LASEK method allows you to successfully operate on patients with such diseases, but in remission. And the ReLEx SMILE technique is used for dry eye syndrome, although this disease is a contraindication for most laser surgeries.

How the operation is performed

—Vision correction surgery takes 10-15 minutes. They include preparation for the procedure, the operation itself is 5-7 minutes, of which the laser operates for 3-4 minutes. Everything happens absolutely painlessly. Local anesthesia is carried out with anesthetic drops, explained Ekaterina Voronkova.

Consequences and rehabilitation

The duration and pain of the recovery period after laser vision correction depends on several factors: the characteristics of the patient and his condition, the type of surgical intervention, compliance with the specialist’s instructions.

Ophthalmologists include lacrimation, redness, swelling, stars, glare, dry eyes, discomfort, fogging, deterioration in the ability to see in low light conditions.

How long does it take for the cornea to heal

— Primary healing occurs in the first 3-4 hours after surgery. Complete healing of the cornea is within a month, the expert noted.

Possible complications

Possible complications include: corneal clouding, astigmatism, double vision, decreased visual acuity, infection, dry eye syndrome and others.

“The risk of complications is minimized if the doctor takes into account the indications and characteristics of the patient, and the latter complies with all instructions after the operation,” the ophthalmic surgeon emphasized.

What not to do after the operation

Patients You should not wash your face or wash your hair for 3 days, you should avoid bright light, as well as eye contact with excessively cold or hot air. It is important to exclude the use of not only decorative eye cosmetics, but also skincare.
“— For the first day after the operation, you should not rub your eyes or touch your eyelids, and for the first week you should avoid visiting the sauna, bathhouse, or swimming pool. You can return to your normal lifestyle seven days after the procedure, explained Ekaterina Voronkova.
It is recommended to avoid drinking alcohol for two weeks after the operation. It is also important to try not to lift weights and minimize work on a computer monitor or phone.

What glasses are needed after laser correction

— Immediately after vision correction surgery, you need dark sunglasses. They are important on the first day. Then the patient decides based on how he feels whether he needs them, the doctor noted.

When vision is fully restored

— Swelling goes away within 2-3 days, visual acuity in the operated eye is restored in 1-2 weeks. Complete healing takes 1 month, the doctor said.

How vision changes after laser correction

—Visual acuity depends on the functionality of the retina. If before surgery with maximum optical correction – in glasses or lenses – the patient saw 100%, then after he receives his planned 100% vision, and often even more, the ophthalmic surgeon noted.

Pros and cons

Laser vision correction is currently considered one of the safest and most effective methods for treating visual pathologies. There are not many contraindications to the procedure, and complications are extremely rare if all the rules are followed.

— Laser vision correction is an operation that is performed at the request of the patient. If he does not want to wear any optical correction, he goes for the procedure. In addition, there are medical indications, for example, a large difference in diopters between the eyes, astigmatism more than three diopters. In such cases, the patient physically cannot wear lenses and glasses, and therefore only laser correction can help him see well, emphasized Ekaterina Voronkova.

At the same time, for patients who do not want to undergo laser correction or are prohibited from it, doctors offer alternatives, such as lens implantation, tangential and arcuate keratomy, refractive lens replacement method, or other surgical options. There are also orthokeratological lenses – rigid gas-permeable contact lenses that are used during sleep and, through programmed restructuring of the corneal epithelium, improve visual acuity.

How much does laser vision correction cost

— At all times, the cost of laser vision correction is close to $1000. The cost varies depending on the degree of visual impairment, technique and level of the clinic. The average price is 45 thousand rubles for one eye,” the doctor noted.

Can it be done for free under the compulsory medical insurance and voluntary health insurance policy

Some eye microsurgery clinics provide services under the voluntary medical insurance policy — voluntary medical insurance. Usually, to receive the procedure for free, you need to contact the insurance manager and the doctor-supervisor of the insurance organization and receive a letter of guarantee and a referral for treatment to a clinic that works with the VHI system.

It is also possible to perform an operation vision correction and free of charge under the compulsory medical insurance policy. However, only a citizen with indications for this correction can take advantage of this benefit. The decision to allocate a quota is made by a medical commission. If the patient’s vision is not perfect, but the defect does not threaten his health, then he will most likely be denied a quota.

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